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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

Academic resources

  • Canadian resources

    Ameli, S., & Merali, A. (2014). Only Canadian: The Experience of Hate Moderated Differential Citizenship for Muslims. Wembley, UK: Islamic Human Rights Commission.

    Barrett, S. R. (1987). Is God a Racist? The Right Wing in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

    Clement, D., & Vaugeois, R. (2013). The Search for Justice and Equality: Alberta's Human Rights History. Edmonton, AB: John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights.

    Fleras, A., & Elliott, J. (2002). Engaging Diversity: Multiculturalism in Canada. Toronto, ON: Nelson Thomson Learning.

    Kinsella, W. (2001). Web of Hate: Inside Canada’s Far Right Network. Toronto, ON: HarperCollins.

    Lauder, M. A. (2002). The Far Rightwing Movement in Southwest Ontario: An Exploration of Issues, Themes, and Variations. The Guelph and District Multicultural Centre.

    Parent, R., & Ellis, J. (2014). Right Wing Extremism in Canada. Vancouver, BC: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society. No. 14-03.

    Perry, B. (2011). Diversity, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Ross, J. I. (1992). Contemporary Radical Right-Wing Violence in Canada: A Quantitative Analysis. Terrorism and Political Violence, 4(3), 72-101.

    Tanner, S., & Campana, A. (2014). The Process of Radicalization: Right-Wing Skinheads in Quebec. Vancouver, BC: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society. No. 14-07.

    Young, K., & Craig, L. (1997). Beyond White Pride: Identity, Meaning and Contradiction in the Canadian Skinhead Subculture. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 34(2), 175-206.

  • International resources

    Adams, J., & Roscigno, V. (2005). White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web. Social Forces, 84(2), 759-778.

    Adamczyk, A., Gruenewald, J., Chermak, S., & Freilich, J. (2014). The Relationship Between Hate Groups and Far-Right Ideological Violence. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(3), 310-332.

    Amster, S. E. (2009). From Birth of a Nation to Stormfront: A Century of Communicating Hate. In B. Perry & B. Levin (Eds.), Hate Crimes: Understanding and Defining Hate Crime (pp. 221-248). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

    Back, L. (2002). Aryans Reading Adorno: Cyber-Culture and Twenty-First Century Racism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25(4), 628-651.

    Back, L., Keith, M., & Solomos, J. (1996). Technology, Race and Neo‐Fascism in a Digital Age: The New Modalities of Racist Culture. Patterns of Prejudice, 30(2), 3-27.

    Black, D. (2004). Terrorism as Social Control. In M. Deflem (Ed.), Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Criminological Perspectives (pp. 9-18). Boston, MA: Elsevier.

    Blazak, R. (2001). White Boys to Terrorist Men: Target Recruitment of Nazi Skinheads. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(6), 982-100.

    Blazak, R. (2009). The Prison Hate Machine. Criminology & Public Policy, 8(3), 633 -640.

    Blee, K. (2002). Inside Organized Racism: Women in the Hate Movement. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

    Bowman-Grieve, L. (2009). Exploring “Stormfront:” A Virtual Community of the Radical Right. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(11), 989-1007.

    Bowman-Grieve, L., & Conway, M. (2012). Exploring The Form and Function of Dissident Irish Republican Online Discourses. Media, War & Conflict, 5(1), 71-85.

    Bubolz, B., & Simi, P. (Forthcoming). Leaving the World of Hate: Life Course Transitions and Self-Change. American Behavioural Scientist.

    Burris, V., Smith, E., & Strahm, A. (2000). White Supremacist Networks on the Internet. Sociological Focus, 33(2), 215-235.

    Castells, M. (2001). The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Chermak, S., Freilich, J., & Suttmoeller, M. (2013). The Organizational Dynamics of Far-Right Hate Groups in the United States: Comparing Violent to Nonviolent Organizations. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 36, 193-218.

    Chau, M., & Xu, J. (2007). Mining Communities and Their Relationships in Blogs: A Study of Online Hate Groups. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 65, 57-70.

    De Koster, W., & Houtman, D. (2008). ‘Stormfront is like a Second Home to me.’ Information, Communication & Society, 11(8), 1155-1176.

    Ezekiel, R., & Post, J. (1991). Worlds in Collision, Worlds in Collusion: The Uneasy Relationship Between the Policy Community and the Academic Community. In C. McCauley (Ed.), Terrorism Research and Public Policy (pp. 117-125). Portland, OR: Frank Cass.

    Fernback, J. (1997). The Individual Within the Collective: Virtual Ideology and the Realization of Collective Principles. In S. Jones (Ed.). Virtual Culture: Identity and Community in Cybersociety (pp. 36-54). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Frehlich, J., Chermak, S., & Belli. (2014). Introducing the United States Extremist Crime Database (ECDB). Terrorism and Political Violence, 26, 372–384.

    Hamm, M. (2007). Terrorism as Crime. New York, NY: New York University Press.

    Hamm, M. (1993). American Skinheads: The Criminology and Control of Hate Crime. Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Hamm, M. S. (2009). From the Klan to Skinheads: A Critical History of American Hate Groups. In B. Perry & B. Levin (Eds.), Hate Crimes: Understanding and Defining Hate Crime (pp. 95-108). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

    Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside Terrorism. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

    Jaggar, A. (2005). What is Terrorism, Why is it Wrong, an could it ever be Morally Permissible? Journal of Social Psychology, 36(2), 202-217.

    Jamin, J. (2013). Two Different Realities: Notes on Populism and the Extreme Right. In A. Mammone, E. Godin, and B. Jenkins (Eds.), Varieties of Right Wing Extremism in Europe (pp. 38-52). Abingdon, UK: Routledge Press.

    Jupskås, A. (2012). Norway. In Institute for Strategic Dialogue, Preventing and Countering Far-Right Extremism: European Cooperation, Country Reports (pp. 51-54). London, UK: Institute for Strategic Dialogue.

    Levin, B. (2002). Cyberspace: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Extremists’ use of Computer Networks in America. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(6), 958-988.

    Martin, G. (2008). Essentials of Terrorism. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

    Michael, G. (2006). RAHOWA! A History of the World Church of the Creator. Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(4), 561-583.

    Minkenberg, M. (2011). The Radical Right in Europe Today: Trends and Patterns in East and West. In N. Langenbacher and B. Schellenberg (Eds.), Is Europe on the “Right” Path? Right-Wing Extremism and Right-Wing Populism in Europe (pp. 37-56). Berlin, DE:Friedrich Ebert-Stiftung Forum.

    Oberschall, A. (2004). Explaining Terrorism: The Contribution of Collective Action Theory. Sociological Theory, 22(1), 26-37.

    Perliger, A. (2012). Challengers from the Sidelines: Understanding America’s Far Right. West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center.

    Perry, B. (1998). Defenders of the Faith: Hate Groups and Ideologies of Power. Patterns  of Prejudice, 32(3), 32-54.

    Perry, B. (2000). “Button-Down Terror:” The Metamorphosis of the Hate Movement. Sociological Focus, 33(2), 113-131.

    Perry, B. (2001). In the Name of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes. New York, NY: Routledge Press.

    Perry, B. (2002). Hate Crime and Identity Politics. Theoretical Criminology, 6(4), 485 491.

    Perry, B. (2002). Defending the Color Line: Racially and Ethnically Motivated Hate Crime. American Behavioural Sciences, 38(2), 83-94.

    Perry, B. (2003). Hate Crime: A Reader. New York, NY: Routledge Press.

    Perry, B. (2009). Hate Crime: Issues and Perspectives, General Editor (5 Volume Set). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers

    Perry, B., & Blazak, R. (2010). Places for Races: The White Supremacist Movement Imagines U.S. Geography. Journal of Hate Studies, 8(29), 29-51.

    Perry, B., & Olsson, P. (2009). Cyberhate: The Globalization of Hate. Information and Communications Technology Law, 18(2), 185-199.

    Rosenfeld, R. (2004). Terrorism and Criminology. In M. Deflem (Ed.), Terrorism andCounter-Terrorism: Criminological Perspectives (pp. 19-32). Boston, MA: Elsevier.

    Simi, P. (2010). Why Study White Supremacist Terror?: A Research Note. Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 31, 251-273.

    Simi, P. (2013). Cycles of Right-Wing Terror in the US. In S. von Mering & T. W. McCarty (Eds.), Right-Wing Radicalism Today: Perspectives from Europe and the US (pp. 144-160). New York, NY: Routledge Press.

    Simi, P., & Futrell, R. (2009). Negotiating White Power Activist Stigma. Social Problems, 56(1), 89-110.

    Simi, P., & Futrell, R. (2010). American Swastika: Inside the White Power Movement’s Hidden Spaces of Hate. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Simi, P., Bubolz, B., & Hardman, A. (2013). Military Experience, Identity Discrepancies, and Far Right Terrorism: An Exploratory Analysis. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 36(8), 654-671.

    U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2009). Rightwing Extremism: Current Economic and Political Climate Fueling Resurgence in Radicalization and Recruitment. Retrieved from

    Webb, J., & Cutter, S. (2009). The Geography of U.S. Terrorist Incidents, 1970-2004. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21, 428-449.

    Weinberg, Leonard (1998). An Overview of Right-Wing Extremism in the Western World: A Study of Convergence, Linkage and Identity. In Jeffrey Kaplan and Tore Bjørgo (Eds.), Nation and Race (pp. 3-33). Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.

    Welliver, D. (2004). Afterword: Finding and Fighting Hate Where It Lives: Reflections of a Pennsylvania Practitioner. In Colin Flint (Ed.), Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. (pp. 245-254). New York, NY: Routledge Press.

    Whine, M. (1999). Cyberspace – A New Medium for Communication, Command, and Control by Extremists. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 22, 231-245.