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Organization reports

Listed alphabetically by organization name

  • Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre

    Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre. (n.d.). Employers guide: Trans-identified people in the workplace. Calgary, AB: Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre.


    Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre. (n.d.). Freedom to be: A teachers’ guide to sexual orientation, gender identity and human rights. Calgary. AB: Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre.


    Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre. (2019). Hate crimes and hate expression in Alberta and Canada: 2nd ed. Calgary, Alberta: Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre.


    Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre. (2012). LGBT rights: Climbing the judicial steps to equality. Calgary, AB: Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre.


    Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre. (2018). Refugees and discrimination: Teacher and student materials (updated Syrian refugee edition). Calgary, Alberta: Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre.


    Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre. (2014). Respect me, respect you: Discrimination, harassment & human rights (educators’ manual). Calgary, Alberta: Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre.

  • Amnesty International
    Amnesty International. (2016). 2016 human rights agenda for Canada: Defending rights for all. London: Amnesty International.
    Amnesty International. (2015). A human rights agenda for Canada 2015: Jobs, security… and human rights for all. London: Amnesty International.
    Amnesty International. (2017). A year to get it right: Amnesty International’s 2017 human rights agenda for Canada. London: Amnesty International.
    Amnesty International. (2018). Amnesty International report 2017/18: The state of the world’s human rights. London: Amnesty International.
    Amnesty International. (2013). Amnesty International’s human rights agenda for Canada: Time for consistent action. London: Amnesty International.
    Amnesty International. (2019). Building hope, addressing injustice: Amnesty International’s 2019 human rights report card and agenda for Canada. London: Amnesty International.
    Amnesty International. (2018). Shoring up rights in a turbulent time: Amnesty International’s 2018 human rights report card and agenda for Canada. London: Amnesty International.

    Amnesty International. (2004). Stolen sisters: Discrimination and violence against Indigenous women in Canada – A summary of Amnesty International’s concerns. London, U.K.: Amnesty International.

    This document summarizes a report by Amnesty International entitled Stolen Sisters: A human rights response to discrimination and violence against Indigenous women in Canada. The report begins with a review of various Canadian cases that highlight a pattern of violent crimes committed against women, with an emphasis on the disproportionate representation of Indigenous women as victims of these crimes. The report does not directly tackle hate crime, but does make reference to sources such as the Manitoba Justice Inquiry, which characterize acts of violence against Indigenous women as racist and sexist. Additionally, the report comments on other realities that contribute to the vulnerabilities of Indigenous women, such as homelessness and prostitution. An important section of this summary details Canada’s history of mistreatment of Indigenous communities. With reference to past policies that took away Indigenous women’s status as Indigenous people, and that forced Indigenous children to be educated in off-reserve residential schools where their culture was denounced, this history suggests that a legacy of mistreatment against Indigenous people exists, and that this legacy has set a foundation for existing hatred and intolerance expressed against members of the Indigenous community. In discussing all of these issues, the focus is not so much on the type of crimes to which Indigenous women are subjected, but rather on their vulnerabilities to victimization and the failure of police officials to adequately and responsibly address this. The report concludes by making 12 recommendations for action by Canadian officials. Among other things, these recommendations include:

    • Implementing effective protocols for action on missing person cases.
    • Funding culturally appropriate services.
    • Creating civilian oversight bodies to investigate the actions of police.
    • Recruiting Indigenous police officers.
    • Funding national research on violence against women.
    • Consulting Indigenous women in the formulation and implementation of policies that affect them.
    • Ratifying international human rights instruments.

    Amnesty International Canada. (2002). Without discrimination: The fundamental right of all Canadians to human rights protection. London, U.K.: Amnesty International.

    In this report Amnesty International identifies several issues of concern pertaining to racial discrimination in Canada. The report focuses on four of the groups most affected by racial discrimination, including:

    • Indigenous peoples
    • refugees
    • migrant workers
    • communities that experience hate crimes in Canada

    Of particular importance for the purpose of the present project is the criticisms made against Canada’s response to hate crime. Specifically, Amnesty International identifies problems with Criminal Code defenses used for hate crime, the failure to recognize Holocaust denial as a hate crime, the prosecution of hate criminals, the capacity to prosecute, and the strength of human rights legislation. For each of these issues, Amnesty International offers corresponding recommendations as to how these issues can be resolved. Among other things, these recommendations include:

    • Making amendments to the Criminal Code by either removing certain hate crimes provisions or adding new ones.
    • Expanding the jurisdiction for the prosecution of offences of incitement to genocide and hatred.
    • Creating specialized police units to investigate and prosecute hate crimes.
    • Ensuring uniformity amongst provincial human rights laws.

    Overall, this report presents Amnesty International’s position against racial discrimination, its criticisms against Canada’s inability to meaningfully combat racial discrimination, and its recommendations for achieving progress and social justice.


    Lauder, M. (n.d.). False perceptions of an inclusive society: A century of racism and hate in Canada. Canada: Amnesty International.

    This brief article initially recognizes that Canada is often portrayed as a “paragon of virtue in harmonious management of race and ethnic relations,” but proceeds to highlight the racist and hate-filled history of Canadian legislation, government action and white supremacist groups. Lauder supports this claim of overwhelming hatred with statistics that show an increase in hate crime throughout the 1990s as well as a dramatic increase in anti-Muslim and anti-Arab crimes following the September 11 attacks in 2001. Critics of these statistics claim that the increase in the raw number of incidents is negligible, but Lauder counters by pointing to the deep-seated impact these crimes have had on the affected communities.

  • BC Civil Liberties Association
    Bahdi, R., Bent, R., Cohen, I., Henry, F., Holmes, R., Jackman, B., Moeckli, D., Parsons, O., Plecas, D., Sandborn, T., Tator, C., Watkinson, A., & Whitaker, R. (2010). Racial profiling: A special BCCLA report on racial profiling in Canada. Vancouver, BC: BC Civil Liberties Association.
    Bahdi, R., Parsons, O., & Sandborn, T. (2009). Racial profiling position paper. Vancouver, B.C.: BC Civil Liberties Association.
  • B'nai Brith Canada

    B’nai Brith. (1996). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith

    The 1996 Audit is a compilation of the quantitative statistical information gathered in the throughout the year as well as a qualitative analysis of legal cases, anti-Semitic events which took place in Canadian schools, local communities, and on the Internet, as well as the achievements of B’nai Brith and the feats that still need to be accomplished. 1996 saw a 26.3 per cent decrease in the number of anti-Semitic incidents reported to B’nai Brith. Incidents involving vandalism remained consistent, but the number of incidents involving harassment decreased substantially. Even so, there were several serious hate crimes committed throughout the year. For example, in April a malfunctioning bomb delivered to the Jewish National Fund office injured one person. The 1996 Audit also contains a number of notable developments which distinguish it from previous years. Bill C-41 was enacted into law in September 1996. This law recognizes the increased impact of crime directed at minority communities, thus requiring sentence enhancement for perpetrators of hate-motivated crimes. Several prominent court cases also took place in 1996. Alberta teacher Jim Keegstra was convicted of promoting Holocaust denial and conspiracy theories in his classroom and subsequently, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld his conviction. Famous Canadian Jewish hate propagandist Ernst Zundel had charges for defamatory libel and conspiracy to promote hatred against Jews withdrawn. Inter-ethnic relations in Quebec were strained throughout 1996, as Quebec voted in the separatism referendum. Following the narrow vote not to separate, prominent French separatists blamed the ethnic vote, referring specifically to the Jewish, Italian and Greek communities. The Audit reports some positive developments—for example, no group since the Heritage Front has been able to rebuild the far-right movement. B’nai Brith raises raises concerns related to the growth and expansion of hate on the Internet as well as recruitment of young people in the schoolyard. The Audit closes with a section on community partnerships, which are collaborating to overcome anti-Semitism all over Canada.


    B’nai Brith. (1997). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    The 1997 Audit includes many of the features of its predecessors, such as a general overview of hate in Canada and its major urban centres, descriptions of some of the major anti-Semitic events of the year, and initiatives undertaken by B’nai Brith and their partners to combat hate. In 1997, there were 212 anti-Semitic incidents recorded by B’nai Brith, representing a 13 per cent decrease from the previous year. B’nai Brith attributes this decrease to a decline in organized hate group activity, a crackdown by the police, and ongoing community vigilance and education. As in past years, Toronto accounted for the largest number and percentage of anti-Semitic hate crimes in Canada. Other large cities, such as Montreal and Ottawa witnessed a decrease in the number of incidents. Nazi sympathizers and hate mongers were out in full force in 1997, many running for positions in public office. Convicted hate monger Don Andrews ran for Toronto Mayor, while Marc Lemire, webmaster for several anti-Semitic organizations and Paul Fromm, neo-Nazi publisher, ran for school trustee positions in Toronto and Peel. Although Andrews, Lemire and Fromm did not win the positions they ran for, they seemed to garner a solid base of support. A number of positive developments took place over the course of the year. Bill C-41 (enacted in 1996) encouraged Hate Crime Units and Crown Attorneys to take strong action by utilizing the new hate law. The Canadian Human Rights Commission launched educational initiatives in order to address hate on the Internet. Related to this initiative, B’nai Brith held an International Symposium on Hate on the Internet. Furthermore, Canadian Heritage, the Ministries of Justice, and the Solicitor General convened a national roundtable to discuss issues of concern and strategies to counter hate. Also, the Canadian Race Relations Foundation was launched this year. Working towards its vision of eliminating anti-Semitism, B’nai Brith launched two public education campaigns to promote awareness of anti-Semitism, racism and hate, and the importance of reporting incidents. B’nai Brith also held a number of legal/legislative initiatives, including the International Symposium on Hate on the Internet. Showing its support for intercultural dialogue, B’nai Brith held a National Unity Symposium, which brought together members from across the country to discuss issues, fears and hopes relating to national unity and the future of Canada.


    B’nai Brith. (1998). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith

    The 1998 Audit is a compilation of the quantitative statistical information gathered in the previous year as well as a qualitative analysis of the specific events and prominent cases of anti-Semitism and hate in schools, on the Internet and in the media. It includes the regular features of the Audit: definitions of the crimes that constitute anti-Semitism or hate, methods of data collection, the current anti-Semitic climate in Canada, and prominent cases and events that took place throughout the year. In 1996, there were 240 anti-Semitic incidents reported to B’nai Brith. As in the preceding years, Toronto had the highest number of incidents and accounted for almost half of the entire Canadian total. Ottawa and its surrounding areas also experienced an increase in reported hate crimes, resulting in an overall increase for the province of Ontario, where most other provinces experiences a decrease. In addition to the raw numbers, the Audit also provides numerous examples of some of the specific incidents reported to B’nai Brith. For example, in St Catharines, 43 headstones next to a Jewish synagogue were vandalized, while a school in Ottawa was set on fire, resulting in $75,000 of damage. The activities of prominent hate groups and individuals are also addressed, most notably the numerous attempts of the Nationalist Party to create a formally recognized European Heritage day/week as a guise for an anti-Semitic symposium. There were also several missionaries and messianic churches throughout Canada which posed as synagogues in order to encourage those of the Jewish faith to convert to Christianity. Hate on the Internet continues to be a growing problem, but B’nai Brith has formed partnerships with many Internet service providers to monitor the content of the websites that they host. The actions of B’nai Brith and other Jewish organizations have stifled the work of anti-Semitic organizations and individuals. The Audit also covers the initiatives undertaken by B’nai Brith in the last year.  


    B’nai Brith. (1999). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    The 1999 Audit includes all of the regular features of the publication: definitions and data collection, a summary of the data collected with reference to regional climates and trends, anti-Semitism in schools, in the media and on the Internet, and B’nai Brith’s continuing struggle to combat hate. Departing from the previous documents, the 1999 Audit is the first to express concern about anti-Semitism in what it terms the “global world.” Throughout the year, there were several major hate crimes committed outside of Canada, but the ripple effect allows their impact to travel across borders. 1999 marked a year of high levels of systemic discrimination and bias, with a notable increase in the number of complaints received in reference to workplace and institutional policies/practices. There was also an 11 per cent increase in the total number of incidents reported. Incidents involving harassment remained stable, but incidents involving vandalism rose close to 50 per cent from the previous year’s total. The Audit details the specific fluctuations of major cities and regions in Canada, making specific mention of key incidents. Once such incident took place in Winnipeg, where more than 200 headstones were toppled in a Jewish cemetery, causing $100,000 in damage. The document also addresses the continued but weakening presence of extreme-right networks throughout the country. The Internet continued to play an important role in these networks’ recruiting efforts as there seemed to be an increased presence of white-supremacist websites designed to recruit women and youth. Relevant to the upcoming millennium, the Christian belief of the Second Coming of Christ influenced an increase in messianic organizations posing as synagogues. These churches believe that Christ’s return is dependent on the conversion of Jews to Christianity, and were therefore out in full force this year. The document closes by reviewing B’nai Brith efforts in 1999 to combat hate through education, training and research, maintaining a close watch on the media, and continuing to build partnerships with other human rights organizations. 


    B’nai Brith. (2000). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    The 2000 Audit departs from its predecessors in content and organization. After a brief introduction and summary of the data, the Audit goes on to describe the international influence of anti-Semitic hate in Canada. International terrorist groups and the ongoing crisis in the Middle East resulted in a wave of anti-Semitic incidents that transcend Jewish communities throughout Canada. Furthermore, Islamic extremist groups linked to terrorists and anti-Israel activity has been alleged to be using Canada as a base to penetrate the United States. For example, the report described the manhunt for Algerian terrorist in Canada in early 2000 after a believed Al-Qaeda agent was found transporting bombs to the United States through British Columbia. Incidents such as these are believed to fuel the sharp increase in the number of violent incidents in 2000. Although there was only a five per cent increase in the number of incidents overall, they were more likely to include fire-bombings, violent assaults and death threats. Anti-Semitism was especially prominent in Montreal this year, where the number of incidents increased from 37 in 1999 to 71 in 2000. Bringing forth the positive developments of the year 2000, B’nai Brith describes a recent decrease in the number and influence of online white supremacist and hate groups. The Audit provides proof of this by including HateWatch’s termination letter, which claims hate groups’ failed attempts to gain wide-spread acceptance and support. The Internet also remains a valuable tool for community activists, police, and government agencies to track hate group activity in Canada. The document closes with a brief overview of the initiatives undertaken by B’nai Brith and its supporters in the past year.


    B’nai Brith. (2001). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith. 

    The 2001 Audit of anti-Semitic incidents departs from previous Audits in light of the September 11 attacks in the United States. B’nai Brith recognizes that the re-emergence of hate against identifiable groups calls for different measures to be used when analyzing anti-Semitic incidents. B’nai Brith suggests that anti-Semitism can no longer be examined exclusively in the local vicinity, but must also be examined in light of contextual background, including connections to incidents in other regions. This Audit takes a different approach to analyzing the events of the past year by dividing the report into six sections with contributions from B’nai Brith and other prominent names in the anti-Semitism realm. Each section contains a report that addresses issues relevant to anti-Semitism in 2001. The first section contains a report on the results of a survey compiled by Dr. Conrad Winn about attitudinal changes towards minorities in Canada over the past 15 years. This section provides the context of the qualitative analysis of incidents in the following section. Section 2 reviews the anti-Semitic incidents of the past year as recorded by B’nai Brith. This section is similar to previous reports, in that it reports the number of anti-Semitic incidents throughout Canada and provides specific examples of some of the incidents that took place throughout the year. In Section 3, Ken McVay of the Nizkor website contributes a paper which discusses the growing use of the Internet to distribute hate propaganda and recruit to the white supremacist cause. Legal counsel for B’nai Brith examines legal cases and their impact in Section 4. Section 5 is a thesis paper by Professor Stephen Schienberg of the University of Concordia; the paper defines the “new anti-Semitism” that has developed in Europe. The final section of the Audit focuses on the future: human rights lawyer David Matas examines the impact of anti-Semitism and possible solutions to the growing problem. 


    B’nai Brith. (2002). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    The 2002 Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents is divided into five main sections:

    • introduction
    • findings of the Audit
    • the victims
    • the context
    • behind the scenes

    The Audit begins by recognizing its significance during a time of tension, uncertainty, anti-Semitism and hatred throughout the world. The Audit reports that Canada experienced a 60 per cent increase in the number of reported anti-Semitic incidents to a record 459 incidents. There was an increase in the number of anti-Semitic incidents in all regions, although these increases were sometimes very small in the West and the Maritimes. B’nai Brith also opted to add a third categorization for its incidents. Previously, violence crimes were included in the definition of harassment, but in 2002, violence became a sufficiently common occurrence to justify its own category in addition to harassment and vandalism. Warranting the violence classification was the murder of a Toronto Jewish man who was stabbed to death by an unknown man making anti-Semitic comments. In terms of the context of this year’s Audit, the events in the Middle East seemed to affect anti-Semitism in Canada. B’nai Brith uses the numerous anti-racism conferences and symposiums that neglected to address anti-Semitism. It also notes the high number of incidents which took place in April and May (154) which corresponded with Israel’s operation Defensive Shield following the Passover Seder terrorist bombing in Netyanya. Regarding victims, B’nai Brith reports that only approximately 10 per cent of victimizations are reported. it outlines several reasons for this underreporting, including internalization of their victimization, fear, and a belief that the incident was too trivial to be reported. In an effort to increase reporting and reduce hatred, B’nai Brith reports that police forces across Canada have demonstrated sensitivity to the Jewish community and closely monitored hate in their regions. Anti-Semitism remained visible in its traditional right-wing roots but also made a presence on the left end of the spectrum, where many questioned the legitimacy of Jewish nationalism, and blamed the Arab/Israeli conflict on the Jews. The report concludes with addressing hate on the Internet, noting that 12 per cent of the reported incidents in 2002 were over the Internet or e-mail. In the report’s appendices, B’nai Brith provides a comparative list of definitions used by their organization and police forces across the country.


    B’nai Brith. (2003). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    Jewish communities worldwide continued to experience increases in hate crime and terror attacks in 2003. Since the new millennium, the theme of the Audits seems to be the ripple effects of global anti-Semitism and hate. B’nai Brith reports heightened concerns among Canadian Jews as the climate in Europe and the Middle East continues to intensify. In 2003, there were 584 incidents reported in Canada, an almost 30 per cent increase from 2002. The severity of the incidents was also a concern, as 33 per cent of the cases included in the Audit were reported to police for criminal investigation. Almost half of the incidents reported in 2003 occurred between January and March, coinciding with anticipation of the war in Iraq. The Audit maintains its concern for the victims of anti-Semitism, citing research that suggests victims of hate crime undergo higher levels of psychological distress than victims of other crimes. This distress, coupled with a growing desensitization to anti-Semitism, has resulted in low reporting rates. For the first time, the 2003 Audit addresses the methodology of the reporting process, describing an intake process that documents, verifies and corroborates incidents before including them in the Audit. B’nai Brith expresses concerns of a convergence between left- and right-wing opponents who are increasingly using anti-Jewish rhetoric. There is also concern about anti-Semitism on university and college campuses, as there has been an increase in anti-Semitic graffiti, hate literature, physical assaults, and terror-legitimizing rallies. The Audit concludes with a section on enhancing protections. It praises the hate crime provisions available in Canada, but criticizes their lax application. The legal cases of the year are also briefly reviewed, included the case of Brad Love, who was sentenced to 18 months in jail and three years' probation for promoting hatred and mailing obscene material. The Audit concludes by citing the positive steps the City of Toronto took when it adopted the Resolution Condemning Anti-Semitism, which is included in Appendix A. B’nai Brith also offers a number of recommendations to combat anti-Semitism, including a uniform definition of hate crime, and the creation of hate crime units in all police jurisdictions.


    B’nai Brith. (2004). Annual audit of anti-Semitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    For the fourth year running, the Audit reported a large increase in the number of incidents reported to their agency. In 2004, 857 incidents were recorded by B’nai Brith. This represents a 47 per cent increase from 2003 and a three-fold increase since the year 2000. Of these incidents, 53 per cent were classified as harassment, 43 per cent as vandalism, and four per cent as violence. Incidents throughout the year were reported in a number of settings, including synagogues, the Internet, on university/college campuses, in the workplace, and in public places. Most of the incidents took place in the Greater Toronto and Montreal areas. A large percentage of the incidents were recorded in March and April, aligning with a Hamas suicide terror bombing and Israel’s subsequent assassination of the Hamas spiritual leader. This gives credence to B’nai Brith’s ongoing claim of the international ripple effect of anti-Semitism. B’nai Brith corroborates its findings by comparing them to other studies, both in Canada and throughout the world. Toronto and York Region police forces both noted an increase in hate crimes in their districts this year. The Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States released an Annual Report on Hate Crime Statistics, which indicated almost 70 per cent of hate crimes based on religion were directed towards those of the Jewish faith. Studies in Europe, Britain and Australia also substantiate the findings of the 2004 Audit. Organized anti-Semitic activity in Canada was only responsible for a small number of this year’s incidents. However, there was activity around infamous Holocaust Denier Ernst Zundel pertaining to the security warning issued against him. The warning was upheld and he was soon deported to Germany, which sparked a number of protests in both Canada and the United States. To protect victims of anti-Semitism, B’nai Brith recommends the police forces of Canada unite to create a national definition of hate crime, and establish a system for gathering statistics. Currently, many of the incidents reported to B’nai Brith are not considered hate crimes. For instance, those exposed to continuous anti-Semitic harassment have no legal recourse. Despite this, there were several anti-Semitic cases that went before the courts (including the Supreme Court of Canada), which the Audit briefly reviews. The Audit also addresses hate on the Internet, which continues to present challenges to those who combat the spread of hatred.


    B’nai Brith Canada. (2016). Annual audit of antisemitic incidents 2015. Toronto: B’nai Brith Canada.
    B’nai Brith Canada. (2017). Annual audit of antisemitic incidents 2016. Toronto: B’nai Brith Canada.
    B’nai Brith Canada. (2018). Annual audit of antisemitic incidents 2017. Toronto: B’nai Brith Canada.
    B’nai Brith Canada. (2019). Annual audit of antisemitic incidents 2018. Toronto: B’nai Brith Canada.
    B’nai Brith Canada. (2017). BB campus: A guide to fighting antisemitism on campus. Toronto: B’nai Brith Canada.
    B’nai Brith Canada. (n.d.). B’nai Brith on campus: Introductory package. Toronto: Brith Canada.

    Kurz, M. (2001). The Zundel and Abrams cases. In B’nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    Kurz briefly reviews The Zundel and Abrams human rights cases that were brought before the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal in 2001. In January 2002, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal released its decision with regard to Ernst Zundel and his Zundelsite. The Tribunal determined the Canadian Human Rights Act afforded them jurisdiction over the Internet, regardless of the fact that website was based out of California (the website was maintained by Zundel and its materials were distributed in Canada). The Tribunal also determined the Zundelsite was not a forum for academic debate but rather for hateful and discriminatory materials. The Harry Abrams case against Doug Collins of the Vancouver North Shore News was also brought before the Tribunal for complaints about four articles published by the newspaper. In 1999, the Tribunal upheld the complaints, but there has since been an attempt to overturn the decision on free speech grounds. Although Collins passed away, the Tribunal delivered its decision stating that the British Columbia Human Rights Code infringes the free speech rights of Mr. Collins but it is saved by Section 1 of the Charter. At the time of the article’s writing, Collin’s lawyer planned to judicially review the Tribunal’s decision.


    Matas, D. (2001). Anti-racism after Durban. In B’nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    David Matas writes this piece as an attendee of the world meetings in Durban, Africa, consisting of a non-governmental forum and an inter-government World Conference Against Racism. Although the purpose of the conference was to develop strategies to fight racism around the world, it soon turned into a venue to express anti-Semitic attitudes. Matas explains that although many Canadian human rights activists were disturbed by the turn of events, others endorsed the concluding documents of the meetings and called for followup on the meetings. Matas claims those who endorse the events of the meetings are overlooking the 21 fundamental principles of the fight against racism. Matas outlines each of these principles with a brief explanation of each and how they contribute to the collective fight against racism. For example, Matas calls for solidarity among various anti-racist activists so as to strengthen their numbers: ignoring racism against one group undermines the collective fight against racism. Matas concludes by suggesting that Canadian human rights activists aggressively adhere to these principles in order to “heal the fracture” in the fight against inequality.


    McVay, K. (2001). Antisemitic activity on the Internet. In B’nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith. 

    Kenneth McVay, Director of the Nizkor Project, examines some of the issues associated with the regulation of hate on the Internet as part of the 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents published by B’nai Brith. Ten years after hate propaganda first appeared on the Internet, McVay reports anti-Semitic activity continues to rise with a pronounced increase in 2001, coinciding with the escalation of violence in the Middle East. As opposed to the physical incidents of anti-Semitism, a significant proportion of hate activity on the Internet can be attributed to right-wing extremist groups. McVay confirms B’nai Brith’s earlier claims that websites are limited as recruiting tools because they fail to create the sense of community that is required to provide validation and a sense of belonging. Recruiting practices have also been directed towards youth with video games that target ethnic and religious groups, such as the game Ethnic Cleansing. UseNet is also a common forum for recruiting because it offers groups and individuals the opportunity to be interactive. The spread of hate on the Internet inspired anti-hate groups such as the Nizkor Project and the Holocaust History Project, which attempt to counter hateful sites. It becomes difficult to do so when the scope of the Internet is so broad. Furthermore, anonymous posting software allows individuals to post hate messages and hate propaganda without any redress. Even when individuals can be traced, Canadian legislation makes it difficult to prosecute such persons. For example, even though the Canadian Human Rights Commission ruled the Zundelsite was running contrary to Canadian law, it continues to operate. The Canadian legal system has failed to provide redress for such acts of hatred; although there have been talks about altering the Criminal Code and the Canadian Human Rights Act, they were not confirmed at the time of the writing.


    Mock, K. R. (n.d.). Countering Anti-Semitism and Hate in Canada Today: Legal/Legislative Remedies and Current Realities Racism, Anti-Semitism and Hate in Canada. Canada: B’nai Brith Canada.

    This article begins with a summary of hate crime history in Canada. It makes the point that Canada is not innocent when it comes to hate and discrimination against those living within its borders. It explains that according to the the Canadian Constitution, hate speech in Canada is not an issue of free speech; it is against the law. There is a section describing the three areas of hate crime focus on an international level (as defined by Julian Roberts):

    • Definition of hate-motivated crimes and the collection of statistics.
    • Creation of new substantive offences.
    • Harsher sentences for those who have committed hate crimes as a sole motive.

    The remainder of the article discusses the legal remedies to hate crime, current legislation as outlined by Roberts, and recent non-legislative alternatives that have been recommended to combat racism, hate and anti-Semitism in Canada. The article stresses the importance of education. Children should be taught at an early age about topics such as multiculturalism, anti-racism and human rights. Mock concludes with the idea that while Canada is still a young country, some may call what is occurring an experiment in multiculturalism. There continues to be a long way to go to combat incidents of anti-Semitism, hate and racism in Canada. 


    Mock, K. R. (n.d.). Perspectives on racism: Anti-Semitism in Canada. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    The article defines anti-Semitism as the hostility directed towards Jewish people because they are Jewish. It outlines hate propaganda as the portrayal of certain groups as less human or inferior to others, compromising democratic values, and maintaining inequality and oppression. The history of anti-Semitism in Canada is discussed from a religious perspective to racist perspective. Religion has been used to distinguish Jews from other societal members. They faced isolation and ridicule wherever they went. Fear and hatred of Jews continued and turned to a racist focus. Therefore religious and racial attacks against the Jews have been prominent, neither more acceptable then the other. Mock believes there is no effective way to fight hate and hate mongering; however, Canada should use any means possible to continue to try to fight it. Hate can be remedied through the law and education. School programs incorporating multiculturalism, human rights and anti-racism are key. Canada can see from its past how far it has come, though one must realize society still has a long way to go. Legislation and enforcement have aided the fight; however, community involvement and education will also help.


    Scheinberg, S. (2001). The new anti-Semitism: The transformation of hate. In B’nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith.

    Schienberg, a Professor at Concordia University and a National Chair for the League for Human Rights, analyzes the emergence of what he terms “the new anti-Semitism.” He explains that following World War II, prominent anti-Semitism historians witnessed a decline in the strength of anti-Semitism and in the early 1990s predicted this decline would continue well into the future. Unfortunately, in the year 2000, an ongoing string of anti-Semitism has disproved this theory. Schienberg attributes the new wave of anti-Semitic violence to four major complementary elements:

    • The rise of anti-Semitism and hate propaganda in the Arab and Muslim communities (although to a smaller extent in the Muslim community).
    • A rise in Arab hate crimes against Jews, which is related to the growing number of Arab people living outside Arab states, spreading their hateful messages.
    • The ongoing campaign to delegitimize Israel as a Jewish state.
    • The reemergence of Jewish stereotypes, which have resulted from the combined effects of the factors listed above.

    The Arab and Jewish battle emanates primarily from Europe, but B’nai Brith continues to emphasize its effects in Canada and all over the world.


    Winn, C. (2001). Vaccinating against racism and bigotry. In B’nai Brith’s 2001 Audit of Antisemitic incidents. Canada: B’nai Brith. 

    In his research, Winn found that Canadians are no more racist today than they were a generation ago. In fact, he discovered evidence of inter-group acceptance, empathy and understanding among those surveyed. However, he raises concerns about hate in Canada. To gauge inter-group relations, he asked respondents whether or not they thought certain ethnic or religious groups had too much or too little power. A response indicating a group had too much power was considered antagonistic, while those who thought groups had too little power were considered empathetic. Winn deduced that those who believed Jews were responsible for the Holocaust often felt Jews had too much power. But on a positive note, he acknowledges Canadians are more knowledgeable about the Holocaust and the majority do not blame its victims. There is also evidence that anti-Asian sentiments are on the rise. This is the only group to experience a rise in antagonism. Winn offers a potential explanation, citing problems of social integration that predate 9/11. He also discovers another interesting fact: both now and in the past, Quebecers seem to be more antagonistic towards African-Canadians, Italians and Jewish people than the general Canadian population. Interestingly, educated Canadians are more likely to believe that certain ethic or religious groups have more power than those who are less educated (less than high school). On the opposite end of the spectrum, youth and women are less likely to feel that any group has too much power.

  • Canadian AIDS Society
    Ryan, B. (2003). A new look at homophobia and heterosexism in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian AIDS Society.

    Vassal, A., Fisher, J., Jurgens, R., & Hughes, R. (1997). Gay and lesbian legal issues and HIV/AIDS: A discussion paper. Montreal: Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network & Canadian AIDS Society.

    This discussion paper documents the historical and persistent patterns of discrimination and persecution gay men and lesbians have suffered, and how the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been accompanied by an epidemic of stigma and discrimination against those affected by this disease. The authors also document the discrimination against gay men and lesbians existent in Canadian law. The paper also demonstrates the effect of discrimination on the lives of gay men and lesbians, as well as the effect of discrimination on efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and to care for those living with this disease. The authors provide recommendations for action that will enable Canada to decrease discrimination against gay men and lesbians and improve HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts. A section dedicated to hate crime, described by the authors as the most extreme manifestation of homophobia and AIDSphobia, includes a discussion about the shockingly high levels of verbal harassment and anti-gay/lesbian violence to which gay men and lesbians in Canada are subjected. In reference to the impact of homophobic violence, the authors state that such public expressions of hatred reinforce the belief held by many Canadians that violence against gay men and lesbians is acceptable. For gay men and lesbians, hate-motivated crimes based on sexual orientation contribute to the difficulties they experience in overcoming the stereotypes and prejudices they face. The authors also provide an overview of Canadian law relative to hate crime against sexual minorities. They argue that many problems exist in both the content and application of Canadian law:

    • Section 159 of the Criminal Code discriminates on the basis of sexual orientation.
    • Other Criminal Code provisions are applied disproportionately against gay men and lesbians.
    • In criminal cases, homosexual advances are sometimes treated as provocation, excusing the acts of the assailant and justifying a lighter sentence.
    • Hate crimes against gay men and lesbians are pervasive.
    • Under the Criminal Code, it is not illegal to promote the genocide of gay men, lesbians and those with HIV/AIDS.

    The authors provide four recommendations to address the above noted problems:

    • Section 159 of the Criminal Code should be revised to align it with the Charter.
    • Police education programs should address discriminatory attitudes among officers that lead to unequal application of the law.
    • Legislation should be introduced to ensure that discriminatory attitudes cannot be used in defence of homophobic violence.
    • Promoting genocide on the basis of sexual orientation should be made illegal. 
  • Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives
    Block, S. (2010). Ontario’s growing gap: The role of race and gender. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Block, S., & Galabuzi, G.-E. (2011). Canada’s colour coded labour market: The gap for racialized workers. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Block, S., & Galabuzi, G.-E. (2018). Persistent inequality: Ontario’s colour-coded labour market. Toronto: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Elliot, P. W. (2016). Decolonizing the media: Challenges and obstacles on the road to reconciliation. Regina, SK: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives Saskatchewan.
    MacDonald, D., & Wilson, D. (2016). Shameful neglect: Indigenous child poverty in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    McSorley, T. (2018, September 1). Challenges, but no crisis at the border. The Monitor. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Perry, B. (2018, July 1). Moving to the right: Extremist groups are larger, bolder in their online and offline activism, and there are more of them. The Monitor. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Puzyreva, M., & Loxley, J. (2017). Cost of doing nothing: Missing and murdered indigenous women and girls. Toronto: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Ruby, C., & Hasan, N. R. (2015, February 17). Bill C-51: A legal primer. The Monitor. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Sinclair, N., Dicks, T. M., & Maton, T. (2016). State of the inner city: Reconciliation lives here. Winnipeg: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
    Weinberg, P. (2018, January 2). Stuck on the threshold of reform: Canada’s spy agency continues to show up unannounced at people’s workplaces and homes. Reformers want the counterproductive practice to stop. The Monitor. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
  • Canadian Commission for UNESCO
    Adler, S.J. (2019, May). When people are properly informed, fake news doesn’t stand a chance (keynote speech delivered on World Press Freedom Day 2019 at the National Arts Centre, Ottawa). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Commission for UNESCO, Canadian Committee for World Press Freedom.
    Brooks, M. (2016). Creating inclusive and equitable cities. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Commission for UNESCO.
    Brooks, M. (2018). The role of municipalities in advancing women’s equity in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Commission for UNESCO’s IdeaLab.
    Canadian Commission for UNESCO. (2012). Canadian Coalition of Municipalities Against Racism and Discrimination (CCMARD) – toolkit for municipalities, organizations and citizens. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Commission for UNESCO.
    Dornan, C. (2017). Dezinformatsiya: The past, present and future of fake news. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Commission for UNESCO.
    Gallant, D. (2017). Countering right-wing extremist radicalization – where to take our policy toolkits next: In-formed and re-formed perspectives of a former violent extremist. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Commission for UNESCO’s IdeaLab.
    Canadian Diversity. (2014). The fight is ours: The potential of municipalities to eliminate discrimination (special Winter 2014 edition). Montreal, QC: Canadian Diversity.
  • Canadian Council for Refugees
    Canadian Council for Refugees. (2019). Promoting positive opinion about refugees toolkit. Montreal: Canadian Council for Refugees.
    Canadian Council for Refugees. (2016). Refugees: Myths… busted! Choosing facts over fears (infographic). Montreal: Canadian Council for Refugees.
    Canadian Council for Refugees. (2014). Seven keys to protecting and welcoming refugees and newcomers: A vision for Canada. Montreal: Canadian Council for Refugees.
  • Canadian Human Rights Commission
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2012). Annual report 2011. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2013). Annual report 2012. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2014). Annual report to Parliament 2013. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2015). Annual report to Parliament 2014. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2018, January 18). Bill C-59, An Act Respecting National Security Matters: Submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2016). Honouring the strength of our sisters: Increasing access to human rights justice for indigenous women and girls. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2017). Left out: Challenges faced by persons with disabilities in Canada’s schools. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2011). Human rights accountability in national security practices – A special report to Parliament. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2011). National security and human rights. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2016). People First: The Canadian Human Rights Commission’s 2015 Annual Report to Parliament. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2017). People First: The Canadian Human Rights Commission’s 2016 Annual Report to Parliament. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2018). People first: The Canadian Human Rights Commission’s 2017 annual report to Parliament. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2017, November 20). Private members’ motion M-103, Systemic Racism and Religious Discrimination: Submission to the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2013). Report on equality rights of aboriginal people. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2012). Report on equality rights of people with disabilities. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2014). Report on equality rights of women. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2019). Roadblocks on the career path: Challenges faced by persons with disabilities in employment. Ottawa: Canadian Human Right Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2019). Speak out: The Canadian Human Rights Commission’s 2018 annual report to Parliament. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2009). Special report to parliament: Freedom of expression and freedom from hate in the internet age. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2012). The evolution of human rights in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2015). The rights of persons with disabilities to equality and non-discrimination. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
    Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2010). Your guide to understanding the Canadian Human Rights Act. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission.
  • Canadian Jewish Congress

    Farber, B. M. (ed.). (1997, January). From marches to modems: A report on organized hate in metro Toronto. Ontario. Canadian Jewish Congress, Ontario Region

    This report addresses hate crime in the Toronto region; it was created to provide information to the government, law enforcement, citizens, and educators so they can better understand the history of hate in the city. It also offers a way to deal with hatred in the community. Section 1 discusses the history of hate crime from 1933 to 1989. It explores the amount of hate that has existed in Canada, from the fascist activity in the 1920s to the radical right and extremist views expressed in the 1970s. Section 2 describes the main leaders of hate in Canada: Wolfgang Droege, Paul Fromm, Ernst Zundel, George Burdi and Marc Lemire. Section 3 focuses on what the hate organizers use to attempt to spread their message, including new recruits, as well as communication devices such as flyers, the Internet and demonstrations. Section 4 contains two case studies on hate motivated crimes. One case is about Jason Hoolans, a neo-Nazi, who viciously beat a man from Sri Lanka to the point of brain damage. The other case was about the conviction of Zvonimir Lelas and Sharon M., who spray painted Nazi signage on a synagogue, school sign and car near Sharon M.’s home. Section 5 discusses the law, and what is more important in regards to hate offenses. The next section discusses the conclusion and recommendations. Recommendations include improved education, the proper enforcement of the law, and co-operation between organizations to combat hate on the Internet. The final section contains the appendices for many acts and legislation in Canada.


    Silber, M. (2001). Human rights and discriminatory publications. Vancouver: Canadian Jewish Congress, Pacific Region.

    This index includes resource materials stemming from the Human Rights Tribunal Hearing of May 1997 in the case of Canadian Jewish Congress vs. Doug Collins and the North Shore News Ltd. In this groundbreaking case, Doug Collins, a member of the media, was forced to defend his published remarks in front of a human rights tribunal. The issue to be decided was whether an article written by Collins, entitled Hollywood Propaganda, contravened Section 7(1) of the British Columbia Human Rights Code by exposing an identifiable group, in this case Jews, to contempt and hatred. Collin’s argued for the constitutional invalidity of Section 7(1) of the B.C. Human Rights Code. The tribunal judge dismissed the case. Two years later, the case was brought again under a new complainant, Harry Abrams. The tribunal judge ruled in Abrams favor. The documents and materials accumulated by the Canadian Jewish Congress in its case against Doug Collins and the North Shore Free Press make up this index. Summaries of important legal submissions, hallmark Canadian cases, selected articles, media documents and bibliographies are also provided. Chapter 1 summarizes recent Canadian cases involving free speech and challenges to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Chapter 2 presents materials pertaining to the constitutionality of Section 7 of the B.C. Human Rights Code. Chapter 3 provides examples of incendiary speech, while Chapter 4 offers expert opinions on the nature and repercussions of such speech. Chapter 5 outlines issues of free speech and censorship in North America. Chapter 6 details the arguments of those opposed to Section 7 of the B.C. Human Rights Code. Finally, arguments in support of Section 7 forms the content of Chapter 7.

  • Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society (TSAS)
    Amicelle, A., & Iafolla, V. (2017). Reporting suspicion in Canada: Insights from the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society. 
    Bilodeau, A., & White, S.E. (2014). Between here and there: Pre- and post-migration experiences and generalized trust among recent immigrants in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Bilodeau, A., White, S., Turgeon, L., & Henderson, A. (2018). Belonging: Feelings of attachment and acceptance among immigrants in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Campana, A., & Tanner, S. (2019). Meanwhile in Canada: Anti-Muslim ordinary racism and the banalization of far right ideology. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Canadian Security Intelligence Service, & Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society. (2015). Personality traits and terrorism. Ottawa, ON, Waterloo, ON: Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Choudhury, T. (2017). The experiences of Canadian Muslim civil-society organizations and activists in influencing and shaping counter-terrorism legislation. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Davies, G., & Dawson, S. (2014). A framework for estimating the number of extremists in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Dawson, L.L., & Amarasingam, A. (2016). Trying to talk to terrorists: Ethical and methodological challenges in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Ducol, B., Bouchard, M., Davies, G., Ouellet, M., & Neudecker, C. (2016). Assessment of the state of knowledge: Connections between research on the social psychology of the internet and violent extremism. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Forcese, C., & Roach, K. (2015). Terrorist babble and the limits of the law: Assessing a prospective Canadian terrorism glorification offense. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Ford, K. (2016). Policies and responsibilities for governing violent extremism at Ontario universities. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Ghosh, R., Tiflati, H., Chan, W.Y.A., Dhali, H.H., & Dilimulati, M. (2018). Trajectories of radicalized females in Montreal. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Hofmann, D.C. (2018). How “alone” are lone actors?: Exploring the ideological, signaling, and support networks of lone-actor terrorists. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Hofmann, D.C. (2015). Quantifying and qualifying charisma: A theoretical framework for measuring the presence of charismatic authority in terrorist groups. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    MacLean, J. (2014). Can “dangerous speech” be used to explain “lone-wolf” terrorism?. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Nolan, E., & Hiebert, D. (2014). Social perspectives on national security: A review of recent literature. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Osterberg, E. (2016). Social impacts of the securitized arrival experiences of in-Canada refugee claimants. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Parent, R.B., & Ellis III, J.O. (2014). Right-wing extremism in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Parent, R.B., & Ellis III, J.O. (2016). The future of right-wing terrorism in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Perry, B., Hofmann, D.C., & Scrivens, R. (2017). Broadening our understanding of anti-authority movements in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Schmidt, R. (2018). Duped: Why gender stereotypes are leading to inadequate deradicalization and disengagement strategies. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Tanner, S., & Campana, A. (2014). The process of radicalization: Right-wing skinheads in Quebec. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Witherspoon, J.A. (2017). Analysis of low-tech terrorism in western democracies: Attacks with vehicles, blades and incendiary devices. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Yang, S.M., Su, Y.Y., & Carson, J.V. (2014). Eco-terrorism and the corresponding legislative efforts to intervene and prevent future attacks. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
    Zaia, R. (2018). Forensic psychiatry and the extremist: A review of the recent violence risk assessment tools for offenders convicted of terrorism offences. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.
  • Canadian Race Relations Foundation
    Angus Reid Institute, & Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2018). Radicalization and homegrown terrorism: Four-in-ten say radicalized individuals live in their communities. Vancouver, Toronto: Angus Reid Institute, Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Angus Reid Institute, The Province, Laurier Institute, & Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2014). Most Canadians view Muslim community as a “partner, not “problem” in fight against radicalization. Vancouver, Ottawa, Toronto: Angus Reid Institute, The Province, Laurier Institute, Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Association for Canadian Studies, & Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2019). Canadians' views on hate. Montreal, Toronto: Association for Canadian Studies, Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

    Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2015). Acknowledging racism. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

    This brief article begins with a discussion of the importance of acknowledging the existence of racism of Canada. The author states that although many Canadians recognize racism as a problem of international scope and import, and are committed to overcoming racism internationally, there is a refusal to recognize racism as an issue in Canada, in present as well as historical terms. This denial is made possible by the characterization of the issue of racism according to very specific events. For example, the images of racism that readily come to one’s mind include slavery in the United States, apartheid in South Africa or the Holocaust. What many people fail to acknowledge are the daily acts of racism that allow these events to occur. The article continues with a discussion of common definitions of racism, such as the one found in the Oxford Dictionary: “prejudice based on race.” The author states that such simple definitions are problematic because they include the invalid belief that a scientifically determined category of race exists. Thus, the social concept of race perpetuates divisions among people and continues to be a root cause of inequality. From this, it is concluded that racism requires a more complex definition, which the author provides by dividing racism into three separate forms including:

    • individual racism
    • systemic racism
    • cultural racism

    Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2000). Facing hate in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

    This article provides insight into the history of hatred in Canada. The authors assert that racism and bigotry are pervasive elements of contemporary Canadian society and argue that the foundation for meaningful social change lies in an understanding of the root sources of hatred. Accordingly, the authors detail exclusionary legislation and practices dating back to 1884, and their adverse impacts on African Canadians, Indigenous, Chinese, Japanese and Jewish people, among other social groups. This history is linked to contemporary forms of hatred as espoused in the white supremacist movement and expressed by anti-hate organizations such as neo-Nazis, Christian identity believers, Holocaust deniers, and racist skinheads. The authors conclude with five central recommendations for responding to bigotry:

    • Increasing public awareness of hate groups.
    • Supporting hate crime victims.
    • Reporting hate activity.
    • Organizing against racist money-making.
    • Rejecting racist politics.

    These suggestions are grounded in the authors’ belief that all forms of discrimination and hate must be challenged on an ongoing basis, with “no effort [being] too small."


    Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2000). From racism to redress: The Japanese Canadian experience. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

    This article describes a history of hatred in Canada against Japanese Canadians. The authors comment on how Asian immigration to Canada during the early 1900s was accompanied by strong anti-Asian sentiments and a moral panic over the 'Yellow Peril.' The authors pay particular attention to the impact of the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the Canadian government’s reaction to the event by enacting the War Measures Act. This act allowed the government to suspend the rights of Japanese Canadians and provided legal justification for the government to execute a mass evacuation of Japanese Canadians, which resulted in 22,000 individuals being sent to road, internment and prisoner-of-war camps. The authors note that even after the war the ended, the 'enemy alien' status of Japanese Canadians had not been removed; they were given an ultimatum to either re-settle in places east of the Rocky Mountains or to leave Canada all together and return to Japan. In response to these injustices, the authors acknowledge the prominent role of the Japanese Canadian Committee for Democracy (JCCD), which later became the National Association of Japanese Canadians (NAJC), in spearheading a movement for redress and compensation. This movement culminated in the Japanese Canadian Redress Agreement in 1988, along with the creation of the Canadian Race Relation Foundation in 1997. While celebrating these achievements, the authors caution that the existing Emergencies Act is insufficient to prevent a repetition of history since the “peace, order, and good government” clause of the Constitution and the notwithstanding clause (s.33) of the Charter allow the government to override fundamental rights. This article also provides a timeline of anti-Japanese legislation in Canada since 1897, as well as a list of key facts and figures that compare the treatment of Japanese in Canada to those in the United States.


    Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2000). Racism in our schools: What to know about it, how to fight it. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

    This article begins with a discussion of the demographic transformation of Canadian schools over the past few decades, which has resulted in a significant racial minority and Indigenous student population. Of concern is the existence of racism as a barrier to equal access to educational achievement for these racial minority and Indigenous students. The author notes that although Canada is regarded throughout the world as a leader in educational standards and resources, development in the areas of inclusiveness and empowerment of all children is lacking. The article continues with a discussion of racism as an intrinsic part of Canada’s history. Institutionalized racism is said to affect all of society’s public spheres, including the educational sphere. The author identifies the colonialist treatment of Indigenous peoples as the most prevalent example of racism within the Canadian school system, and provides a historical account of residential schools. Such schools served as a means to alienate Indigenous children from their families, language and culture, and assimilate them into 'civilized' Christian society. The socio-economic ramifications of residential schools are still apparent to this day. The article notes that much progress has been made since the abolishment of residential schools, yet provincial schools still do not respond to the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical needs of Indigenous children. The author identifies some of the barriers Indigenous and racial minority children face in school, including negative differential treatment, stereotyping, bias in testing and evaluation, streaming, a mono-cultural curriculum, unfair and unusual discipline, and the self-fulfilling prophecy of low expectations. It is noted that although ministries of education have taken steps toward the development of anti-racist policies, their implementation is slow and inconsistent. Furthermore, cuts to educational funding are having an increased negative impact on racial minority and Indigenous children as anti-racism and ethnocultural equity departments, in addition to English and/or French-as-a-second-language courses, often disappear.


    Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (n.d.). Racism in the justice system. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

    In this article, racism is the justice system is identified as one of the most obvious examples of institutional racism in Canadian society. The author notes that racism is operational in all aspects of the justice system, and points to studies that have proven this point. For example, statistical research has consistently found that racial minorities are overrepresented in all stages of the Canadian criminal justice system, First Nations Peoples being the most overrepresented group. The author cautions that drawing conclusions from statistics alone, without considering the results of racism and the processes that lead to this reality, can perpetuate stereotypes and misconceptions about First Nations Peoples. To gain a complete understanding of the overrepresentation of First Nations Peoples in the criminal justice system, it is suggested that racism be examined from three angles:

    • personal racism
    • systemic racism
    • ideological racism

    In addition, the author states that it is necessary to analyze how these three categories of racism operate in each of the criminal justice system’s main processes: policing, judiciary, and the penal system. The article continues with a presentation of statistics on the over-representation of First Native Peoples in the three streams of policing, courts and corrections. Systemic barriers, including a lack of First Nations police officers, judges and lawyers, are identified as contributing to this phenomenon. In terms of ideological racism, it is noted that the traditional justice systems to which most First Nations Peoples subscribe conflict with the adversarial nature of the Canadian justice system. This, in collaboration with language barriers, cultural differences and socioeconomic problems, results in the alienation of First Nations Peoples from the criminal justice system and reduces their likelihood of receiving a fair trial. The author states that problems of personal, systemic and ideological racism continue in the correctional stream. To prove this point, the article uses research indicating that First Nations Peoples are treated harsher than other inmates, receive parole less often, and are prevented from continuing their ceremonial and spiritual practices. 


    Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2014). Report on Canadian values. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Canadian Race Relations Foundation, & Association for Canadian Studies. (2017). Capturing the Pulse of the Nation 2017. Toronto, Montreal: Canadian Race Relations Foundation, Association for Canadian Studies.
    Environics Institute, & Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2016). Focus Canada fall 2016: Canadian public opinion about immigration and citizenship. Toronto: Environics Institute, Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Environics Institute, & Canadian Race Relations Foundation, (2018). Focus Canada winter 2018: Canadian Public opinion about immigration and minority groups. Toronto: Environics Canada, Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Henry, F., & Tator, C. (2005). Racial profiling in Toronto: Discourses of domination, mediation, and opposition. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Henry, F, & Tator, C. (2005). Racist discourse in Canada's English print media. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Jewab, J. (2019). What drives support for prohibiting religious signs: Secularist sentiment is not a significant factor in support by Quebecers or other Canadians for such prohibitions. Montreal; Toronto: Association for Canadian Studies; Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
    Kunz, J. L., Milan, A., & Schetagne, S. (2000). Unequal access: A Canadian profile of racial differences in education, employment and income. Toronto, Kanata, ON: Canadian Race Relations Foundation, Canadian Council on Social Development.
    Ma, L., & Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2018, March). Immigration and citizenship in Canada: Public opinions and social trends. Presented at Metropolis Conference 2018, Calgary, AB.
    Ma, L., & Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2019, March). Just how welcoming is Canada?. Presented at the “Public Opinion, Electoral District Profiles and the Role of Ethnic Media in Integration” workshop, Metropolis Conference, Halifax.
    Ma, L., & Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2019, June). Perceptions on immigration, diversity and religion. Presented at the “Behind the numbers: public opinion on immigration in North America and Israel” workshop, International Metropolis Conference 2019, Ottawa.
  • Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women
    Arscott, J. (2017). Gender equality and the Royal Commission on the Status of Women (policy briefing note). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, Policy4Women Project.
    Denis, A., Boileau, K. (2015). Gender justice for all! (factsheet). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.
    Dobrowolsky, A., Arat-Koç, S., & Gabriel, C. (2018). (Im)migrant women in Canada (policy briefing note). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, Policy4Women Project.
    Dubinsky, K. (1985). Lament for a patriarchy lost?: Anti-feminism, anti-abortion, and R.E.A.L. women in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.
    Gibbings, S., & Morris, M. (2004). Women, peace and security (factsheet). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.
    Johnson, H., & Colpitts, E. (2013). Violence against women in Canada (fact sheet). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.
    McCuaig, J., & Hutchinson, C. (2014). Diversity through inclusive practice toolkit. Ottawa, ON, Montreal, QC: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, FemNorthNet Project, DisAbled Women’s Network.
    Morris, M. (2002). Women’s experience of racism: How race and gender intersect (fact sheet). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.
    Morris, M., & Sinnott, J. (2003). Immigrant and refugee women (fact sheet). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.
    Pate, K. (2018). Rising incarceration rates of racialized women (policy briefing note). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, Policy4Women Project.
    White, J., & McCuaig, J. (2016). Canada’s temporary foreign worker program and women migrant workers in Canada’s north. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, FemNorthNet Project.
    Wilcox, C., White, J., Careen, N., Hutchinson, C., Leung, W., & Lake, V. (2016). Domestic violence and violence against women in the North (fact sheet). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, FemNorthNet Project.
  • Canadian Women’s Foundation
    Canadian Women’s Foundation. (2019). Online hate: Submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights. Toronto, ON: Canadian Women’s Foundation.
    Lamontagne, M. (2011). Violence against aboriginal women: Scan and report. Toronto, ON: Canadian Women’s Foundation.
    Paltiel, C. (2016). Violence against young women and girls: Its relation to campus violence and rape culture (brief to the Standing Committee on the Status of Women). Toronto, ON: Canadian Women’s Foundation.
    Sordi, A. (2011). Violence against women with disabilities - violence prevention review. Calgary, AB, Toronto, ON: Vecova Centre for Disability Services and Research, Canadian Women’s Foundation.
  • Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs
    Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs. (n.d.). Antisemitism fact sheet. Ottawa, ON: The Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs.
    Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs. (n.d.). Brief history of the Canadian Jewish community. Ottawa, ON: The Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs.
    Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs. (2018). Federal issues guide: 2018/2019. Ottawa: Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs.
    Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs. (2013). The Holocaust. Ottawa: Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs.
    Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs. (2013). The Holocaust: A timeline. Ottawa: Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs.
    Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs. (2012). Understanding antisemitism and anti-Zionism. Ottawa: Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs.
  • Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children
    Ahmad, S. (2018). Unlearning Islamophobia in anti-violence against women work (Learning Network brief 34). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Baker, L. (2015). Sexual violence prevention – are we increasing safety or reinforcing rape culture? Good intentions… and unintended bad consequences (Learning Network brief 21). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Baker, L., Campbell, M., & Barreto, E. (2013). Understanding technology-related violence against women: Types of violence and women’s experiences (Learning Network brief 6). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Baker, L., Campbell, M., & Staatman, A.L. (2012). Overcoming barriers and enhancing supportive responses: The research on sexual violence against women (a resource document). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Baker, L., & Etherington, N.A. (2016). The link between boys’ victimization and adult perpetration of intimate partner violence: Opportunities for prevention across the life course. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Actions to end femicide infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (2013). Engaging men and boys to end violence against women: An annotated bibliography of online resources (Learning Network brief 8). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Experiences of intimate partner violence infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Health and well-being of Canadian women infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Rape culture is… infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Sexual harassment – what is a myth and what is reality? Infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (2013). Status of Women Canada – engaging young people to prevent violence against women on post-secondary campuses: The Ontario Projects (Learning Network brief 10). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Violence against women living with disabilities in Canada infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Violence against women with disabilities and deaf women infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (n.d.). Violence against young women infographic. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Etherington, N. (2015). Cyber misogyny (Learning Network brief 28). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Etherington, N., & Baker, L. (2015). Forms of femicide (Learning Network brief 29). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Etherington, N.A., & Baker, L.L. (2017). Links between the maltreatment of girls and later victimization or use of violence. London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
    Odette, F. (2013). Ableism – a form of violence against women (Learning Network brief 11). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Odette, F., & Rajan D. (2013). Violence against women with disabilities and deaf women: An overview (Learning Network brief 12). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Piestch, N. (2015). Sexual harassment and public space (Learning Network brief 27). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
    Straatman, A. (2015). Engaging men in gender-based violence prevention: Review paper synopsis (Learning Network brief 24). London, ON: Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children’s Learning Network.
  • Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2016). A doubt? A concern?. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2017). Developing a better understanding of the phenomenon of radicalization leading to violence: An information kit for social workers and counsellors. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2016). For a violence-free environment: Report hate incidents and crimes. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (n.d.). Preventing radicalization leading to violence in the workplace: An information kit for managers. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2017). Prevention of radicalization leading to violence: Intervention at every level. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2017). Radicalization and violent extremism: How do I talk about it with my child?. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2016). Radicalization leading to violence in Quebec schools: Issues and perspectives (analytical report). Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2016). Radicalization leading to violence in schools in Quebec: Issues and perspectives (executive summary). Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2016). Radicalization leading to violence in schools: A better understanding for a better response – Information kit for school personnel. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2016). Radicalization leading to violence in the workplace. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence. (2017). Strengthening our resilience to agents of radicalization and their rhetoric: How to avoid succumbing to their appeal. Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence, & Conseil du Statut de la Femme Quebec. (2016). Women and violent radicalization (research report). Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence, Conseil du Statut de la Femme Quebec.
    Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence, & Conseil du Statut de la Femme Quebec. (2016). Women and violent radicalization (summary). Montreal: Centre for the Prevention of Radicalization Leading to Violence, Conseil du Statut de la Femme Quebec.
  • Coalition of Inclusive Municipalities
    Canadian Diversity. (2014). The fight is ours: The potential of municipalities to eliminate discrimination (special Winter 2014 edition). Montreal, QC: Canadian Diversity.
    Downie. K. (2019). LGBTQ2+ inclusiveness: Toolkit for inclusive municipalities in Canada and beyond. Ottawa, ON: Coalition of Inclusive Municipalities (Canadian Commission for UNESCO). 
    Holley, P., & Jedwab, J. (2019). Welcoming immigrants and refugees to Canada: The role of municipalities (toolkit). Ottawa, ON: Coalition of Inclusive Municipalities (Canadian Commission for UNESCO).
  • DisAbled Women’s Network (DAWN)
    DisAbled Women’s Network Canada. (n.d.). Factsheet: Women with disabilities and violence. Montreal, QC: DisAbled Women’s Network Canada.
    DisAbled Women’s Network Canada. (2019). More than a footnote: A research report on women and girls with disabilities in Canada. Montreal, QC: DisAbled Women’s Network Canada.
    McCuaig, J., & Hutchinson, C. (2014). Diversity through inclusive practice toolkit. Ottawa, ON, Montreal, QC: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, FemNorthNet Project, DisAbled Women’s Network.
    Rajan, D. (2011). Women with disabilities and abuse: Access to supports. Toronto, ON, Montreal, QC: Canadian Women’s Foundation, DisAbled Women’s Network Canada.
  • Diversity Institute at Ryerson University
    Daniel. L., & Cukier, W. (2015). The 360 Project: Addressing racism in Toronto. Toronto: Ryerson University’s Diversity Institute and Urban Alliance on Race Relations.
    Connely, K., Cukier, W., Grant, C., Neuman, K., Newman-Bremang, K., & Wisdom, M. (2014). The Black experience project: A Greater Toronto Area study capturing the lived experiences of a diverse community (phase 1 – community engagement final report). Toronto: Atkinson Charitable Foundation, The Environics Institute, Ryerson University’s Diversity Institute, United Way Toronto and YMCA of Greater Toronto.
    Ryerson Diversity Institute, York University, The Environics Institute, YMCA of Greater Toronto, & United Way of Greater Toronto and York Region. (2017). The black experience project in the GTA: Overview report. Toronto: Ryerson Diversity Institute, York University, The Environics Institute, YMCA of Greater Toronto, United Way of Greater Toronto and York Region.
  • Downtown Eastside Women’s Centre
    Martin, C.M., & Walia, H. (2019). Red woman rising: Indigenous women survivors in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. Vancouver, BC: Downtown Eastside Women’s Centre.
    The Women’s Coalition. (2014). Getting to the roots: Exploring systemic violence against women in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver. Vancouver, BC: The Women’s Coalition
  • Egale
  • Environics Institute